-         This determines what portion of earnings will be paid out to stockholders and what will be retained in the business to finance long-term growth.

-         Dividend constitutes the cash flow that accrues to equity holders whereas retained earnings are one of the most significant sources of funds for financing the corporate growth.


-         The most common type of dividend is in the form of cash

-         Public companies usually pay cash dividend, sometimes a regular cash dividend and sometimes an extra cash dividend

-         Paying a cash dividend reduces the corporate cash and retained earnings.

-         It is also paid in the form of shares of stock and this is referred as stock dividend or bonus shares.


            The stability could take three forms:
-         Keep dividends at a stable rupee amount but allow its payout ratio to fluctuate, or
-         Maintain stable payout ratio and let the rupee dividend fluctuate, or

-         Set low regular dividend and then supplement it with year-end “extras” in years when earnings are high. As earnings of the firm increase the customary dividend will not be altered but a year-end “extras” will be declared.


-         Dividend policy is strictly a financing decision; the payment of cash dividend is a passive residual.

-         The amount of dividend payout will fluctuate from period to period in keeping with fluctuations in the amount of acceptable investment opportunities available to the firm.

-         If the firm unable to find out profitable investment opportunities, payout will be 100%.

-         The theory implies that investors prefer to have the firm retain and reinvest earnings rather than pay them out in dividends if the return on re-invested earnings exceeds the rate of return the investors could themselves obtain on other investments of comparable risks.


-         Investors are indifferent to dividends and capital gains and so dividends have no effect on the wealth of shareholders.

-         They argue that the value of the firm is determined by the earning power of firms assets or its investment policy.

-         The manner is which earnings are divided into dividends and retained earnings does not affect this value.


-         Legal: dividends must be paid out of firm’s earnings/ current earnings

-         Financial: a firm can pay dividend only to the extent that it has cash to disburse

-         Economic constraints

-         Nature of business conducted by a company

-         Existence of the company: length of existence of the company.

-         Type of company Organisation: pvt. Or public

-         Financial needs of the company.

-         Market conditions

-         Financial arrangements

-         Change in government policies


  1. Dividends to be paid only out of profits:

-         It is necessary for a company to declare and pay dividend only out of profits for that year arrived at after providing for depreciation in accordance with the provisions of section 205(2) of the act.

-         A dividend could be declared out of profits of the company for any previous financial year or years arrived after providing for depreciation in accordance with those provisions and remaining undistributed.

-         The dividend can also be declared out of moneys provided by the central govt. or a state govt. for the payment of dividend in pursuance of guarantee given by that govt.

-         The company is required to transfer to the reserves such percentage of its profits for that year not exceeding 10% in addition to providing for depreciation as required under section 205(2A) of the Act.

  1. Unpaid dividend to be transferred to special dividend account:

-         Dividends are to be paid within 30 days from the date of the declaration

-         If they are not paid the company is required to transfer the unpaid dividend to unpaid account within 7 days of the expiry of the period of 30 days.

-         The company is required to open this account in any scheduled bank as required under section 205-A of the Companies Act, 1956

  1. Dividend is to be paid only to registered shareholders or to their order or their bankers


  1. Any money transferred to the unpaid dividend account of a company in pursuance of section 205A(5) which remains unpaid or unclaimed for a period of 7 years from the date of such transfer to unpaid dividend account, shall be transferred by the company to the investor education and protection fund established under sub-section (1) of section 205C

  1. Sub-section (1A) of section 205 stipulates that the board of directors may declare interim dividend and the amount of dividend including interim dividend is to be such deposited in a separate bank account within 5 days from the date of depreciation.

  1. Failure to do so, every director of the company, shall, if knowingly a party to the default, be punishable with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to 3 years and shall also liable to a fine of rupees for everyday during which such default continues and

  1. The company shall be liable to pay simple interest at a rate of 18% p.a. during the period for which such default continues.